Category Archives: School Closings

The Towerlight highlights school closings work

PANELISTS TACKLE RACIAL INJUSTICE, BALTIMORE SCHOOL CLOSINGS

By: Nilo Exar, Staff Writer

Students and guest panelists gathered Monday, March 23 to discuss the potential closings of some Baltimore City Schools and the role of racial inequality in education.

A video, entitled “School’s Out,” was shown before the panel discussion.  The video was co-produced by TU assistant professor Jessica Shiller and her “The Possibilities and Challenges of Reforming Urban Schools” honors college students. The video touched on issues like the lack of a community and city relationship when closing schools, as well as the general racial issues surrounding school closings and the greater racial injustice that the schools closings represented.

After the video, panelists including Johns Hopkins associate professor Lester Spence, Morgan State professor Lawrence Brown, Jamal Jones of the Baltimore Algebra Project and Ryan Good, a doctoral student at Rutgers, discussed both Baltimore and the country’s history of racial discrimination.

According to Spence, many of the cities where many schools are closed have high rates of segregation and removal of black population.

“117 of 188 schools [in Baltimore City] are 99 percent or more Black,” Brown said.

Spence also talked about racial zoning, which refers to the period when African-Americans were restricted from living in certain neighborhoods, as well as redlining, when banks refused to give mortgages to minorities.  He said that this discrimination still occurs in the closing of schools.

“14 of the top 20 cities for school closings are in top cities for segregation,” Brown said.

Schools are closed down when they are under a 71 person in the utilization formula, according to Spence. This can mean that schools perform poorly on standardized tests and general academic performance.  However, usually these schools are already being slighted in terms of funding.  Jones, who went through Baltimore City Schools himself, attested to the existence of this.

Another reason city schools can’t succeed is the lack of permanent teachers and administrators at the schools.

“There’s a lot of leaving that happens,” Jones said.  He said that many teachers are brought in through Teach for America, but leave at the end of their time because they are drained, which creates a revolving door for teachers and faculty.

The panelists also looked at outcomes of community-based schools being closed.

“Getting rid of schools perpetuates this other history of not knowing where you’re from,” Jones said.

He said that having deep and truthful conversations about the racial issues behind school closings is the first step to bettering the situation.

Students of Shiller’s seminar class were in attendance at the panel discussion.  Junior exercise science major Daniel Andrades spoke to the value that educating about such issues plays in motivating people to help the cause.

“Before we came to class we had no idea what the policies were about the schools, we had no idea about Jim Crow and how it actually affected what’s happening today,” Andrades said.

“I think this program also really showed the inequalities that go into urban schools, and not just education itself but housing, neighborhoods, [and] the distribution of wealth,” junior psychology and sociology major Maia Williams said.

http://thetowerlight.com/panelists-tackle-racial-injustice-baltimore-school-closings/

Schools continue to close in Baltimore…

renaissance_academy_will_remain_closed_w_0_27422622_ver1-0_640_480    Recently the CEO of Baltimore schools declared that Renaissance High School would close. Baltimore has been suffering with school closure for the past few years as the implementation of the 21st century plan to improve school buildings gets put into practice. The plan, initiated in 2012, was meant to renovate all city school buildings, many of which are old and falling apart. Money from the state of Maryland was provided for this endeavor on the condition that the city school system agreed to close its most under-utilized schools. To gain the funding for renovation, the city schools agreed and the process of school closure began in earnest in 2013. Several schools have closed including Langston Hughes Elementary school, a recently renovated building in the Park Heights neighborhood of the city. The school had air conditioning and was in great condition, but it was under-enrolled. It was built for over 300 students and only had 176 when it closed. The announcement of the school closing produced an exodus from the school, local activists argued, not the other way around.

Under the 21st century plan, 26 schools in total are going to close. The students attending closed schools are sent to existing school buildings, merging the two small schools, and swelling their numbers. Two schools that combined recently, Westside Elementary and John Eager Howard Elementary now have over 400 students, for instance. This causes challenges in terms of school climate. The students do not know each other, the staff does not know all of the students, and the larger environment is not conducive to personalization. There are misunderstandings, fights, and little time to resolve conflict and build positive school culture. Still, we know from research that personalization helps students, especially low income students, learn because it allows for the teacher-student relationship to thrive, to pinpoint academic and social emotional needs that students bring to the classroom, and to build the connection that students have to school.

Consequently, this is a situation in which policy is colliding with what research says is best for children. Since over 80% of Baltimore’s public school students are low income, it would make sense to provide environments that allow for personalization to exist. Even the CEO of Baltimore schools agreed that there needs to be more attention to  improving school climate. Yet, the school system is unable to provide those small school environments because of  two key constraints. One is financial. It is expensive to maintain school buildings, and with school budgets being slashed every year, it is even more difficult. The ACLU of Maryland is one organization that works to ensure that the city schools receive the funding that they are due. Sometimes it works and sometimes it does not work as well, but pushing for overall increased funds is certainly an organizing effort in which everyone who connects with city schools should be engaged.

The second is that the city promised the state that it would reduce the number of schools.  This is also an important argument. The city must hold its side of the agreement with the state. Yet, there were real unintended consequences with closing schools, not the least of which are the school climate issues mentioned above. Just the process alone of informing communities that their schools are closing has caused an uproar in every school community facing a closing. Merging schools In the case of Renaissance High School, the school was slated for closure some time ago. In 2015 Renaissance was on the closure list, but was taken off when there was pushback from the school community. The city school board has been sensitive to some of the concerns expressed by community members since the uprising following the death of Freddie Gray, a young Black man who died in police custody in April 2015. At that time, thousands of city residents, including young people, took to the streets protesting police brutality and the conditions that have produced limited opportunities and police violence in Black communities for decades. Even the federal government has felt some sympathy with Baltimore’s communities and Renaissance specifically. Following a stabbing at the school, the US Department of Education gave a grant to Renaissance in September of this year to “recover and to re-establish safe learning environments where all children can focus on getting a great education.” A couple of months later, the CEO announced that the school would close unless it could be relocated. This has posed a new set of problems to resolve.

In many ways this is an example of why urban school reform is so difficult. The policy does not emerge from research and the research does not matter when it comes to decisions that need to be made quickly and with limited resources.  That said, strong relationships and trust are central to school success. In so many of the school board hearings about closing schools, students, teachers, and parents have testified how the school is like a family to them and that they have very special relationships within the school community. While some might dismiss this testimony as nothing more than sentimentality, their pleas have been about salvaging the very elements that make school places that work for communities.

What should be done? What is a cash-strapped city to do to create school environments that support students and communities? The first order of business could be to deal with the issues openly and honestly.  Explaining the conundrum that the city is in and the role that the 21st century plan plays is important for everyone to understand. Another step could be to have a process for working out what happens to schools when they need to close and/or merge and to have an open and transparent process for decision making, and a set of supports and procedures in place so that schools are not on their own to sort out the climate issues that come from absorbing hundreds of new students. I have seen this first hand and it is very challenging for schools. One idea would be to have smaller academies within the larger schools and teams of teachers (and community partners) that work together to support those students very directly. This would require the central office (along with community partners) to focus much of its efforts on helping school staff do this, but if Baltimore’s schools are going to move forward positively from its school closure dilemma, they may not have a choice.

 

Out with the old: Closing schools and reimagining a new Baltimore

     When you ask people what their school means to them, they think of the memories that they had: The teachers, the classes and activities they were involved in, the friends they made, and even the role the school played in the community. Bill Bleisch, a former Baltimore high school teacher, remembered a special statue out in front of his school, Eastern High School, “There had been a stone sculpture, by artist Grace Turnbull, showing a shepherd tending a flock of sheep. It was based on a poem called Tears, published in 1909 by Lizette Woodworth Reese, who herself had been a Baltimore Public School teacher for nearly 50 years.” The statue was inspiring for students who were from poor and working class neighborhoods that surrounded Eastern. When Eastern closed in the 1980’s, this large statue was moved to make room for a Johns Hopkins University medical facility. This was a sad moment for Bleisch  and the students and alumni from Eastern, but he adds, “That is what happens when schools are closed. Things get moved around. The story changes, and memories fade.”

    Today 26 schools are closing in Baltimore. They are being closed to “right size” the school district. The city’s population has been steadily declining for many years and the district, once home to over 100,000 students, is now at about 82,000. In 2013, education leaders released a report that declared many of the city’s schools under-utilized, and put them on the chopping block. 

   The school closing plan is not just about having the right number of schools for the population, but it is also part of a new story that Baltimore is trying to write for itself. After decades of disinvestment, and a recent series of protests, the city is trying to usher in a new phase that will address its seemingly impenetrable cycle of poverty. The city will renovate its remaining schools under something called the 21st century plan and launch an “innovation district” in the middle of the city. No more blight and vacant buildings, but a district where new residents will live, tech entrepreneurs and members of the creative class

   These plans exclude current residents from Baltimore’s new iteration. Current residents, most of whom are African-American and middle and low income, struggle with basic needs. These are folks who send their children to schools like Westside Elementary, which will be closing in 2016 due to under-enrollment and poor performance. Still, the school is home to an active community school program, which provides a food pantry, enrichment programs, and medical services to. Although it is not a high performing school, Westside is a neighborhood anchor. And as social psychologist Michelle Fine states, “a school is a neighborhood resource, even when it is producing devastating outcomes for kids.”

  However, the new plans for Baltimore do not imagine schools as neighborhood resources, Rather, the remaining schools in the city will be renovated to serve a new kind of resident, one that can bring more of their own resources to Baltimore, not one that will need resources. While the city desperately needs an economic boost, the current residents are not seen as central to this new chapter in Baltimore’s history. Like the statue in front of Eastern High School, they will be moved and replaced by something more useful. 

Governor saves white schools from closing

Carroll County

Carroll County, a rural county in Maryland, needs to close three schools. School closure is a problem that mainly urban districts face, but it is also a problem that rural counties also face because of declining enrollment. Closing schools is a policy move that teachers, parents, and  students in urban areas have fought tooth and nail in Detroit, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia. In Chicago, supporters even launched a hunger strike to save one closing school, Dyett High School.

Although rural districts like Carroll County face school closure, the residents do not have to go to such extreme lengths to save their schools.  The governor of Maryland recently announced that he would give $4 million dollars to Carroll County schools to “buy the district some time.” The governor was quoted as saying, “They’ve had some real problems in the community, people concerned they didn’t have a lot of time to prepare for the declining enrollments and handling these school closures, so we thought it was the best thing to do and give them a little more time to try and figure out a better plan.”

This would make sense if funds were doled out equitably in the state. Down the road from Carroll County, about 20 miles away, is Baltimore. Baltimore is facing the closure of 26 of its schools. The governor has not provided any additional funds to assist the school board in its process nor to help the public prepare and to figure out a better plan. Not only is this unfair, but Baltimore’s schools serve poor and black students, Carroll County serves mainly white students. This move by the governor  shows a blatant disrespect toward a black community, when it is going through the same problems as a white one with its schools.

The governor called this move to help the rural district “common sense.” Yet, it is this particular kind of common sense that has dismantled schools that serve black and brown children, while schools that serve white children stay in tact. There is not much common sense  to the idea of helping one district and not another, to supporting some children and not others. There is no common sense in that.

Where do the children go after schools close?

School closings.jpgJust returning from a conference in Boston, URBAN (Urban Research-Based Action Network). There, we talked as scholars and activists from all over the country about schools closing. They close under plans that are supposed to make the closings sound benign like Renaissance, 21st century, or Millennial. However, this is anything but benign. Closing schools hurts communities and shifts students and families to new schools. We know that they do not fare well. A Chicago study showed that the students do not attend better schools and fall behind academically. A second study that looked across six cities showed that closing schools does not end up saving much money and does not produce better outcomes for kids. Coming soon will be a research project that follows the students in Baltimore into their new schools to find out not only what the academic outcomes are but what the social implications are as well.

Continued schools closings, privatization, and what it means for cities

Privatization

Yes Magazine put together this infographic on the reasons why private entities want public schools.

More news continues to emerge  across the country of budgets shrinking, neighborhood schools closing, and charter schools opening in their place. Four more schools were put on the closing list in Baltimore last week.  In Philadelphia, Chicago, Memphis, we see closings followed by the proliferation of charter schools, leading one to conclude that this is a very deliberate strategy of outsourcing public schools to private operators. The Broad Foundation’s effort to get control of Los Angeles schools is the most recent plan to address budget woes with a plan to privatize the schools.

Research has shown that these practices do not yield much success. Not only have privately operated schools not produced better outcomes for students, but the combined strategies of privatization, high stakes testing, and accountability have failed to produce better learning and better outcomes for children. Seeing these poor results, there has been resistance to market-based strategies all over the country. From Chicago’s hunger strike to save Dyett High School from closing to Philadelphia student protest against budget cuts to the Seattle teacher strike for recess and better salaries, people across the country have resisted. Meanwhile, superintendents who favored neoliberal policies are under fire. Chicago may be the best example of this with calls for mayor Rahm Emmanuel’s resignation and superintendent Barbara Byrd Bennet’s scandalous exit.

Yet, resistance has not stopped school from closing or privatization of public schools.  What will this mean for cities? What will the impact be? I argue that closing schools and privatization will just worsen conditions for poor children and will continue to underserve them. The best schools- charters or not- will continue to serve the most affluent children. Inequality will be reproduced.

It’s time to propose a plan that is an alternative to neoliberal strategies. I continue to believe that what happens in schools is very important, but we also have to turn our attention to what sociologists have long told us for a long time is the cause of poor academic outcomes, poverty. Sociologists and economists like William Julius Wilson, Richard Rothstein, Pedro Noguera, and Doug Massey have all linked poverty with poor achievement in school. Their studies can be traced back to James Comer’s ground-breaking study that linked social class to academic achievement in 1966. For more information on this see this link from the Economic Policy Institute.

There has been some policy to address poverty including Title I which emerged under the Civil Rights Act to address poverty in schools, but it has not been enough. In my local context, Baltimore, politicians, education leaders, and private developers have put more energy into fighting poverty. The biggest efforts to date have included a federal grant for social workers in schools, a renovated transportation plan, and a state-funded plan to knock down vacant housing, and a plan to develop more waterfront property. Whether these will work has to do with the answers to these questions:

  • What problem is the plan meant to solve?
  • Who will the plan benefit? Who will lose out?
  • Will the plan leave inequity in place?
  •  How will the plan change the lives of poor people?

The plans to address poverty have to benefit those in poverty. What we have learned over many years of trying is that means putting those most impacted at the table when decisions are being made. No grants or policy-making will sustain itself until they are included in decision-making.

 

 

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